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Les projets de centrales à charbon en recul dans le monde | L'EnerGeek Les projets de centrales à charbon en recul dans le monde | L'EnerGeek

Les projets de centrales à charbon en recul dans le monde

centrale_charbon_photo_wknight94

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centrale_charbon_photo_wknight94Selon la dernière étude publiée par l’Organisation non gouvernementale CoalSwarm, les projets de centrales à charbon n’ont en effet plus le vent en poupe. Mieux, les chiffres du rapport « A shrinking coal pipeline » semblent même indiquer un net recul de ces projets estimés peu respectueux de l’environnement. Alors que de nombreuses nations annoncent la ratification de l’accord de Paris, la réduction des gaz à effet de serre reste plus que jamais un enjeu majeur.

Des projets abandonnés principalement en Asie

Les chiffres ne mentent pas : les projets de construction de centrales électriques au charbon sont en net recul. Au début de l’année, ce ne sont pas moins de 1090 GW de capacités qui étaient en projet de construction. À l’heure de la rédaction du rapport de Coalswarm, ce chiffre n’était plus que de 932 GW.

Ce sont donc quelque 158 GW de projets de centrales, soit 14 % de la puissance totale envisagée, qui ont été annulés entre janvier et juillet 2016. Cet écart est notamment à mettre sur le compte de l’Asie : 122 GW de projets sont tombés à l’eau en Asie (dont 45 GW en Asie du Sud et 7 GW en Asie du Sud-Est).

Lire aussi : Le Danemark retourne au charbon ?

La place du charbon dans le mix électrique de l’Union européenne semble sujette à discussion : les projets de construction accusent un recul de 2,4 GW au sein des pays membres. Cela ne suffit cependant pas à compenser la hausse des intentions de construction dans les pays européens non-membres de l’UE (+ 3,5 GW). Enfin, l’Afrique et le Moyen-Orient affichent également une augmentation de 10 GW.

Un « progrès substantiel » mais des efforts à poursuivre

On notera, au niveau national, que les bons élèves sont la Chine, l’Inde et le Vietnam : ils ont en effet permis le retrait respectif de 113 GW, 40 GW et 10 GW de projets de production à base de charbon. À signaler également la performance de l’Allemagne (-2 GW) et de l’Australie (-1,3 GW), souvent pointés du doigt pour leur dépendance aux matières fossiles polluantes.

Du côté des mauvais élèves, l’ONG distribue des mauvais point à l’Égypte (11 GW de projets de centrales au charbon de plus qu’en janvier), la Mongolie (+8 GW), la Turquie (+3,2 GW), aux Philippines (+2,4 GW), aux Émirats arabes unis (+2,4 GW), au Cambodge (+2 GW) et au Chili (+1,4 GW).

« Si cette réduction représente un progrès substantiel, il faudra aller beaucoup plus loin pour éviter de mettre la planète en grand danger, car les capacités de génération au charbon en construction (350 GW) et en projet (930 GW) dépassent largement le budget carbone correspondant à un réchauffement de 1,5 °C », estime Ted Nace, directeur de CoalSwarm.

Lire aussi : Les centrales à charbon de nos voisins nous enfument

Crédit photo : Wknight94

Rédigé par : lucas-goal


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