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En 2015, la croissance économique a été moins énergivore | L'EnerGeek En 2015, la croissance économique a été moins énergivore | L'EnerGeek

En 2015, la croissance économique a été moins énergivore

illustration_energie_photo_leo-hoogendijk

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illustration_energie_photo_leo-hoogendijkEn 2015, la croissance du PIB mondial n’a pas été synonyme de hausse de l’intensité énergétique. Dans son dernier rapport, l’Agence Internationale de l’Énergie (AIE) explique en effet que la croissance économique mondiale a eu besoin de moins d’énergie pour se développer. Les économies d’énergies visées par les politiques des États de l’Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques (OCDE) n’ont donc pas été freinées par la baisse des prix du pétrole. Explications.

Une baisse de 1,8 % de l’intensité énergétique

C’est en marge du Congrès mondial de l’Énergie, qui s’est ouvert à Istanbul en Turquie le 10 octobre dernier, que l’AIE a dévoilé son panorama mondial centré sur l’efficacité énergétique. Les auteurs de ce rapport expliquent que l’intensité énergétique, indicateur de la quantité d’énergie utilisée pour une unité de PIB, a diminué de 1,8 % au cours de l’année 2015. Durant la décennie écoulée, cet indicateur a affiché une baisse de 0,6 % par an.

Lire aussi : Les revenus de l’OPEP chutent de 46 % en 2015

Concrètement, les gains d’efficacité des 29 pays membres de l’AIE représentent l’équivalent de la consommation énergétique du Japon. Une performance qui a été réalisée « malgré les prix bas du pétrole qui traditionnellement ralentissent l’enthousiasme pour les économies d’énergie », s’est d’ailleurs empressé de souligner le bras énergétique de l’OCDE.

La Chine fait figure de bon élève avec une intensité qui s’est inscrite à la baisse de 5,6 % contre un recul moyen de 3,1 % au cours de la décennie écoulée : la croissance économique de l’Empire du Milieu a connu une hausse de 6,9 % alors que la consommation d’énergie ne progressait que de 0,9 %.

La performance énergétique, une des clefs du problème ?

Au niveau mondial, les États ont investi un total de 221 milliards d’euros dans l’efficacité énergétique en 2015, soit une hausse de 6 % par rapport à l’année précédente. Une progression que l’AIE estime toutefois trop lente : les auteurs du rapport préconisent un renforcement des politiques nationales afin de favoriser les gains potentiels d’économies énergétiques.

« 70 % de la consommation énergétique mondiale ne fait l’objet d’aucune exigence de performance d’efficacité », déplore le directeur exécutif de l’AIE, Fatih Birol. Selon les calculs présentés dans le rapport de l’AIE, les gains d’intensité énergétique devraient atteindre 2,6 % chaque année pour tendre vers un système énergétique décarboné.

« L’efficacité énergétique est la ressource que tous les pays possèdent en abondance », rappelle M. Birol. Avec des avantages qui ne se limitent pas uniquement à la prise en compte des problématiques environnementales actuelles : ce ne sont pas moins de 2,3 millions de barils de pétrole qui ont été économisés l’année dernière grâce aux normes d’efficacité énergétique. Soit, 2,5 % de la production mondiale.

Lire aussi : Et les pays les plus vertueux en termes d’efficacité énergétique sont…

Crédit photo : Leo Hoogendijk

Rédigé par : lucas-goal


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